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Clinical predictors of seizure recurrence after the first post-ischemic stroke seizure


Background The number of patients suffering post-stroke seizure after ischemic stroke (PSSi) is quite considerable, especially because ischemic stroke is more prevalent than hemorrhage in the general population. This study aimed to determine the predicting factors for seizure recurrence in ischemic stroke survivors and develop a clinical scoring system for the prediction of risks for seizure recurrence after the first PSSi. Methods We reviewed 3792 ischemic stroke patients from the Ewha Stroke Registry. A total of 124 (3.3 %) patients who experienced PSSi were recruited (mean follow-up for 44.4 months). Medical records concerning the etiology, functional disability, seizure onset latency from stroke, type of seizure, electroencephalography (EEG), and neuroimaging findings were statistically analyzed to derive a seizure recurrence risk scoring system. Results Seizures recurred in 35.4 % (17/48) of early PSSi patients (≤1 week since stroke onset) and 48.7 % (37/76) of late PSSi (>1 week) patients. Atrial fibrillation, large sized, and cortical stroke lesion were more common in late onset PSSi compared to those in early onset PSSi (p < 0.05). Seizure recurrence tended to be more prevalent in early PSSi patients with male gender, atrial fibrillation or cortical stroke lesion, severe functional disability, and partial seizures. Seizure recurrence in late PSSi group was more common in patients of young age (≤65 years old), male gender, large lesion size, and partial seizure type. The validity of seizure recurrence risk score in the early PSSi group was better when evaluating based on gender, atrial fibrillation, cortical lesion, functional disability, and partial seizure type, with sensitivity of 70.6 % and specificity of 71.0 %. Conclusions Our study characterized the high risk group for seizure recurrence in patients with the first PSSi. PSSi patients with high risk score of seizure recurrence had a greater chance of developing epilepsy later. Therefore, they should be considered for further treatment such as antiepileptic drug medication in clinical practice.

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